during the Men's Ice Hockey Preliminary Round Group C game on day eight of the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics at Bolshoy Ice Dome on February 15, 2014 in Sochi, Russia.

Saliva as Fuel? It’s Not Just Science Fiction

Who needs batteries and outlets when you can power cool sensors with your own saliva. The idea may sound futuristic, but the reality is not that far off

Imagine your iPhone battery is running low, and you can’t find an outlet to recharge. What if all it took to boost the battery was tapping into your saliva—a naturally produced, cost-free fuel? It’s an awesome concept, and while we’re not quite there yet, scientists are finding ways to use spit as energy.

Chemists at Penn State University and Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah University have discovered that small medical testers—things like glucose and ovulation sensors—could soon be powered by your own saliva. In a recent paper published in NPG Asia Materials journal, professors detail a small, wearable device fueled by bacteria and saliva. “This particular device is notable because it’s flexible,” professor Bruce Logan, one of the paper’s authors, tells Vocativ. “You can either spit into it or have it attached to a fake tooth.”

High-magnification micrograph of a salivary gland.


Developing new microbial fuel cells, powered by the electrons released when bacteria decompose organic material, is an ever-expanding field in the world of biotechnology. But portability of the fuel cells is an issue that Justine Mink, the study’s primary author, hoped to address. Her team of researchers set out to create a cell that was “uniquely mobile” and “inexpensive” that would use “readily available fuel sources.” She also noted that saliva had a lot of organic material to work with: “Although predominantly water, saliva is composed of inorganic and organic components, such as glucose,” reads the paper.

To create this portable battery, all that’s required—and here’s where you need your high school chemistry—is an anode (the thing that produces electrons) and a cathode (the thing that receives them). The researchers loaded a graphene disk with bacteria, and when it reacted with the subject’s spit, it broke down the saliva into smaller components, including electrons. This was their anode. Oxygen freely flowing in the subject’s mouth established a current of energy from the electrons generated by the disk. This was their cathode.

The saliva used in the study (that of a healthy 16-year-old boy) generated only 1/1,000,000 of a watt of power—a fairly insubstantial burst of energy. But that’s just about enough when it comes to small devices that don’t require much fuel.

The primary application of the spit-powered cell, the researchers predict, is as an ovulation sensor. In the five days leading up to ovulation, a woman’s estrogen peaks and her saliva’s electrical conductivity takes a dive—a combination that, through the help of a mini sensor, could indicate her fertility levels. “This application could thus help to maintain a woman’s health, as well as help couples in better family planning in a non-invasive, easy-to-use method,” the professors write. They also suggest that similar devices could be used for seizure detection, as “devices able to operate at sub-microwatt power outputs are becoming a reality.”

But above all else, it’s the device’s potential portability that could render it functional. Says Logan: “You never have to worry about plugging it in.”

Respond Now
  • Stoners will be in trouble. Cottonmouth produces no saliva. Colorado will be some phone-dead people. No charging there.

    1 Reply - Reply Now
    • I’m a stoner and I have no such problem! Haha. People are their misconceptions………….

      1 Reply - Reply Now
      • The one time I smoked pot, I got a case of cottonmouth. It took hours for saliva to start being produced again.

  • Derp electrons are received by the anode

    4 Replies - Reply Now
    • @Kian ::nods:: They could’ve easily checked that…

    • Umm Electrons flow OUT of an anode… (in a voltaic cell)

    • +
    • Electrons are NOT recieved by the anode in any anode/cathode pairing.  Conventional current flow is considered to be from cathode to anode, but the actual movement of electrons is opposite of “conventional” current flow because electrons carry a negative charge, not a positive one.  Don’t criticize what you don’t understand.  Derp.


Spooky Dolls on the Doorstep: A Real-Life Horror Movie Unfolds in L.A.

Emily Levy

Inside Gaza's Smuggling Tunnels

Vocativ Staff

Ancient Ritual Leaves Babies Infected With Herpes

Luke Malone

Ukraine’s Streamers

Dusan Sekulovic

"Stuffers" Pack on Pounds to Satisfy Their Sexual Desires

Elizabeth Kulze

Inside the U.N.'s 850-Calorie "Diet" for Refugees

Mythili Sampathkumar

This Gadget Texts You if There Are Date-Rape Drugs in Your Drink

Elizabeth Kulze

Inside Turkey’s Yoga Sex Scandal

Elcin Poyrazlar
Join the Fray
Slumdogs in China’s Sin City